The Donation Process, Canadian Blood Services, bone marrow donation process.#Bone #marrow #donation #process
The Donation Process
We are committed to ensuring you have a safe, efficient and rewarding donor experience. The following information guides you through what happens before, during and after your donation. Don’t hesitate to contact us at any time if you have questions or concerns.
If you’re found to be a potential match, we will contact you. With the guidance of a registered nurse—your case manager—you’ll go through a comprehensive health assessment before you donate to make sure you can safely proceed and that your health background does not pose a risk to the patient. The nurse performs this assessment over the phone.
A physician conducts a thorough physical assessment at the nearest collection centre—the hospital where you will donate your stem cells—and you’ll also be tested to confirm that you have no infectious diseases. Once you are confirmed as medically eligible and you agree to proceed, the patient will be notified and will start his or her pre-transplant treatments.
Two kinds of donation
Depending on the treatment selected for the patient, you will donate either peripheral stems cells or bone marrow stem cells:
With PBSC collection, your blood is drawn through a needle in a non-surgical procedure done at the hospital. After the stem cells are separated from the blood, the rest is returned back to your body through another needle. To increase the number of blood stem cells in your bloodstream, you will receive daily under-the-skin injections of granulocyte colony stimulated factor (G-CSF) for five days before the donation.
Risks: Bone and muscle pain are the most common side effects of G-CSF. These are relieved with over-the-counter medication. Some donors may experience nausea, a tingling feeling or chills during the collection procedure as well as fatigue, headaches, low-grade fever or discomfort at the injection site. Side effects are usually mild to moderate and short in duration.
Since the collection of stem cells using this method is relatively new, it is unknown what the long-term side effects (more than ten years) of the drug used to stimulate the production of stem cells are.
This is a surgical procedure performed under anesthesia. Hollow needles withdraw stem cells from your bone marrow from the back of your pelvic bones. The procedure lasts 45 to 90 minutes.
Risks: There are some risks associated with anesthesia similar to other surgical procedures. Serious side effects from anesthesia are rare: common ones include sore throat, mild nausea and vomiting.
Risks associated with bone marrow donation include infection, pain or numbness in a leg, bleeding at the donation site, bruising and lower back discomfort. Most donors recover well and are back to their normal routine within several days.
However you donate, your case manager will be in frequent contact with you until you are completely recovered.
Stay in touch
A life-saving stem cell transplant can only proceed if we are able to locate a matching donor. It is critically important that you let us know when your contact information changes. This can be done by logging into your account or by calling us toll free at 1 888 2 DONATE to provide your new address and telephone number. We also appreciate being advised if your health status changes, as it may affect your eligibility to donate.
A long-term commitment
It may be days, weeks, months or even years before you get the call to become a donor—which is why it’s important to be prepared to commit for the long term.
“I joined OneMatch in 1999 when I was 21 years old. I have been called twice to help save a life; the second time was 13 years after I joined. You never know when you will be needed. Despite being a small business owner leading hectic life, I did not hesitate to help. If it was someone in my family, I would only hope someone would be there for them.”
Mohamed, New Market, Ontario, Stem Cell Donor
Bone Marrow Transplant – Surgery Procedures – Risks – NY Times Health Information, bone
- Alternative Names
A bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells.
Bone marrow is the soft, fatty tissue inside your bones. Stem cells are immature cells in the bone marrow that give rise to all of your blood cells.
Back to TopAlternative Names
Transplant – bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical cord blood transplant
Back to TopDescription
There are three kinds of bone marrow transplants:
- Autologous bone marrow transplant: The term auto means self. Stem cells are removed from you before you receive high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatment. The stem cells are stored in a freezer (cryopreservation). After high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatments, your stems cells are put back in your body to make (regenerate) normal blood cells. This is called a rescue transplant.
- Allogeneic bone marrow transplant: The term allo means other. Stem cells are removed from another person, called a donor. Most times, the donor’s genes must at least partly match your genes. Special blood tests are done to see if a donor is a good match for you. A brother or sister is most likely to be a good match. Sometimes parents, children, and other relatives are good matches. Donors who are not related to you may be found through national bone marrow registries.
- Umbilical cord blood transplant: This is a type of allogeneic transplant. Stem cells are removed from a newborn baby’s umbilical cord right after birth. The stem cells are frozen and stored until they are needed for a transplant. Umbilical cord blood cells are very immature so there is less of a need for matching. But blood counts take longer to recover.
Before the transplant, chemotherapy, radiation, or both may be given. This may be done in two ways:
- Ablative (myeloablative) treatment: High-dose chemotherapy, radiation, or both are given to kill any cancer cells. This also kills all healthy bone marrow that remains, and allows new stem cells to grow in the bone marrow.
- Reduced intensity treatment, also called a mini transplant: Patients receive lower doses of chemotherapy and radiation before a transplant. This allows older patients, and those with other health problems to have a transplant.
A stem cell transplant is done after chemotherapy and radiation is complete. The stem cells are delivered into your bloodstream usually through a tube called a central venous catheter. The process is similar to getting a blood transfusion. The stem cells travel through the blood into the bone marrow. Most times, no surgery is needed.
Donor stem cells can be collected in two ways:
- Bone marrow harvest. This minor surgery is done under general anesthesia. This means the donor will be asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The bone marrow is removed from the back of both hip bones. The amount of marrow removed depends on the weight of the person who is receiving it.
- Leukapheresis. First, the donor is given 5 days of shots to help stem cells move from the bone marrow into the blood. During leukapheresis, blood is removed from the donor through an IV line in a vein. The part of white blood cells that contains stem cells is then separated in a machine and removed to be later given to the recipient. The red blood cells are returned to the donor.
Back to TopRisks
A bone marrow transplant may cause the following symptoms:
Possible complications of a bone marrow transplant depend on many things, including:
- The disease you are being treated for
- Whether you had chemotherapy or radiation before the bone marrow transplant and the dosages of such treatments
- Your age
- Your overall health
- How good of a match your donor was
- The type of bone marrow transplant you received (autologous, allogeneic, or umbilical cord blood)
Complications can include:
- Bleeding in the lungs, intestines, brain, and other areas of the body
- Clotting in the small veins of the liver
- Damage to the kidneys, liver, lungs, and heart
- Delayed growth in children who receive a bone marrow transplant
- Early menopause
- Graft failure, which means that the new cells do not settle into the body and start producing stem cells
- Graft-versus-host disease, a condition in which the donor cells attack your own body
- Infections, which can be very serious
- Inflammation and sorenes in the mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach, called mucositis
- Stomach problems, including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
Back to TopReferences
Bishop MR, Pavletic SZ. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2008:chap 32.
Vose JM. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 181.
- Alternative Names
Bone Marrow Transplant: Types, Procedure – Risks, bone marrow donation process.#Bone #marrow #donation #process
Bone Marrow Transplant
A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure performed to replace bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease, infection, or chemotherapy. This procedure involves transplanting blood stem cells, which travel to the bone marrow where they produce new blood cells and promote growth of new marrow.
Bone marrow is the spongy, fatty tissue inside your bones. It creates the following parts of the blood:
- red blood cells, which carry oxygen and nutrients throughout the body
- white blood cells, which fight infection
- platelets, which are responsible for the formation of clots
Bone marrow also contains immature blood-forming stem cells known as hematopoietic stem cells, or HSCs. Most cells are already differentiated and can only make copies of themselves. However, these stem cells are unspecialized, meaning they have the potential to multiply through cell division and either remain stem cells or differentiate and mature into many different kinds of blood cells. The HSC found in the bone marrow will make new blood cells throughout your lifespan.
A bone marrow transplant replaces your damaged stem cells with healthy cells. This helps your body make enough white blood cells, platelets, or red blood cells to avoid infections, bleeding disorders, or anemia.
Healthy stem cells can come from a donor, or they can come from your own body. In such cases, stem cells can be harvested, or grown, before you start chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Those healthy cells are then stored and used in transplantation.
Why You May Need a Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow transplants are performed when a person’s marrow isn’t healthy enough to function properly. This could be due to chronic infections, disease, or cancer treatments. Some reasons for a bone marrow transplant include:
- aplastic anemia, which is a disorder in which the marrow stops making new blood cells
- cancers that affect the marrow, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma
- damaged bone marrow due to chemotherapy
- congenital neutropenia, which is an inherited disorder that causes recurring infections
- sickle cell anemia, which is an inherited blood disorder that causes misshapen red blood cells
- thalassemia, which is an inherited blood disorder where the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin, an integral part of red blood cells
What Are the Complications Associated with a Bone Marrow Transplant?
A bone marrow transplant is considered a major medical procedure and increases your risk of experiencing:
The above symptoms are typically short-lived, but a bone marrow transplant can cause complications. Your chances of developing these complications depend on several factors, including:
- your age
- your overall health
- the disease you’re being treated for
- the type of transplant you’ve received
Complications can be mild or very serious, and they can include:
- graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which is a condition in which donor cells attack your body
- graft failure, which occurs when transplanted cells don’t begin producing new cells as planned
- bleeding in the lungs, brain, and other parts of the body
- cataracts, which is characterized by clouding in the lens of the eye
- damage to vital organs
- early menopause
- anemia, which occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells
- nausea, diarrhea, or vomiting
- mucositis, which is a condition that causes inflammation and soreness in the mouth, throat, and stomach
Talk to your doctor about any concerns you may have. They can help you weigh the risks and complications against the potential benefits of this procedure.
Bone Marrow and Stem Donation Methods, bone marrow donation process.#Bone #marrow #donation #process
bone marrow donation process
THIS IS A VOLUNTEER ADVOCACY WEBSITE
To learn where to register in all other countries please CLICK HERE
Before Launching Your Drive
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Key Things to Understand Before Launching Your Donor Drive
The Difference Between Marrow and PBSC Donation
What is Peripheral Blood Stem Cell (PBSC) collection and how is it different from marrow donation?
A simplified illustration of the PBSC process.
While lying in bed with your arms at your sides your blood is then removed through a sterile needle in one arm and passed through a machine that separates out the blood-forming cells. This process is similar to donating plasma. The remaining blood is returned to you. It will probably take at least two harvesting sessions, with each lasting several hours to harvest the required number of stem cells. You can even watch tv or a movie while the harvest takes place. (more info here)
PBSC donation may require placement of a central line if you do not have suitable arm veins. A central line will be placed only with your consent after you have received information about the possible risks.
Another potential risk is associated with filgrastim injections. Though filgrastim is commonly used to treat cancer patients, the use of filgrastim in healthy donors is fairly new. Therefore, no data are yet available about the long-term safety. The NMDP began using filgrastim to aid in transplants in the 1990s. Since then, no NMDP donors have reported any long-term complications from filgrastim injections. (From the NMDP website)
Bone Marrow: 30% of the time, donors are asked to give their stem cells through a bone marrow donation. The majority of bone marrow donations are for children as they experience a higher success rate from marrow rather then PBSC.
Bone Marrow Donation Risks: The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) wants to assure donor safety, but no medical procedure is risk-free. The majority (more than 98.5%) of donors feel completely recovered within a few weeks. A small percentage (1.34%) of marrow donors experience a serious complication due to anesthesia or damage to bone, nerve or muscle in their hip region.
The risk of side effects of anesthesia during marrow donation is similar to that during other surgical procedures. Serious side effects of anesthesia are rare. Common side effects of general anesthesia include sore throat (caused by the breathing tube) or mild nausea and vomiting. Common side effects of regional anesthesia are a decrease in blood pressure and a headache after the procedure. (From the NMDP website)
Donate Umbilical Cord Blood: In the past, when a baby was born, the umbilical cord was thrown away. But today, blood from the umbilical cord can be collected after your baby’s birth and donated to a public cord blood bank to help someone with a life-threatening disease. (more info here)
Is donating bone marrow painful, Anthony Nolan, bone marrow donation process.#Bone #marrow #donation #process
Is donating bone marrow painful?
The myth that stem cell or bone marrow donation is painful is extremely common – and worryingly, it often stops people from registering to donate.
In 2016, a YouGov survey found that a shocking 34% of young men who wouldn’t sign up as a stem cell donor were just too scared that the experience would be painful.
We urgently need that to change – because it couldn’t be further from the truth.
Is stem cell donation painful?
‘I would 100% recommend it to other people. It’s comfortable, painless and so worthwhile.’
Zachary, stem cell donor
‘It was painless and that’s coming from someone with a fear of needles! I remember being amazed at how simple it was.’
Sean, stem cell donor
90% of people now donate directly from their bloodstream, in a procedure known as peripheral blood stem cell donation (PBSC).
You’ll receive a series of four hormone injections to make your stem cells multiply into the bloodstream. Then you’ll head to a clinic, where the stem cells will be extracted from one arm, and your blood returned to the other.
And that’s it. Some people report flu-like symptoms from the hormone injections, but these are usually mild and vanish within a few days.
Is bone marrow donation painful?
‘I’ve felt worse after a few bruising encounters on the football pitch. Within a week of the donation, I was back on my feet and feeling much better; all in all, it’s a very small price to pay for what could be achieved.’
Liam, bone marrow donor
‘Some people have asked me if it was painful or difficult. It was actually quite simple and nothing compared to what the recipient is going through at the same time.’
Andrew, stem cell and bone marrow donor
Just 10% of people are asked to donate from the bone marrow itself.
This is the procedure that lies at the root of the ‘bone marrow donation is painful’ myth – but in reality, it takes place under general anaesthetic, so you won’t feel any pain while it’s happening.
Afterwards, you’ll probably feel a bit tired and bruised, and we recommend that you take a short break from work to recover. But that’s all – and it makes a lifesaving difference.
Want to hear from more stem cell and bone marrow donors?
Tackling the myth that stem cell or bone marrow donation is painful is one of our biggest priorities.
That’s why we often ask our donors to share their stories, to bust the myths and show the world what donation is really like.
For a wide variety of donation experiences, just check out the Anthony Nolan Facebook page – we usually add one or two new stories every week!
If you’re aged 16-30, sign up to our lifesaving register by clicking on the link below:
Donating Bone Marrow
Marrow is a substance found inside bones. It resembles blood and contains blood stem cells, which produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets important for carrying oxygen, fighting infection and helping to control bleeding.
Blood stem cells, the cells that transplant patients need to make healthy new marrow, usually live in bone marrow, but are also released naturally, in small numbers, into the circulating (peripheral) blood. A medication called Filgrastim will dramatically increase the release of blood stem cells into the circulating blood so that enough cells for transplant can be collected directly from the bloodstream.
Why Register to Donate Bone Marrow?
Every year, thousands of adults and children need bone marrow transplants a procedure which may be their only chance for survival. Although some patients with leukemia or other cancers have a genetically matched family member who can donate, about 70 percent do not. These patients’ lives depend on finding an unrelated individual with a compatible tissue type, often within their own ethnic group, who is willing to donate marrow for them.
As of 2012, the Be The Match Registry SM has facilitated over 50,000 unrelated transplants and the national Registry has over 10 million volunteer donors. In the Puget Sound region, our local donor center has more than 77,400 volunteer donors on the national Registry. There is a critical need for more volunteer donors. Many patients, especially people of color, cannot find a compatible donor among those on the Registry. Patients and donors must have matching tissue types, and these matches are most often found between people of the same racial and ethnic background. A large, ethnically diverse group of prospective donors will give more patients a chance for survival.
Those interested in joining the Be The Match Registry SM must have their HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigens) tissue type determined. A buccal swab allows the donor to swab the inside of their cheeks to collect enough cells to be HLA tissue typed.
Donors joining the Be The Match Registry SM must be between 18-44 years old and in good health, and must meet Donor Eligibility Guidelines. Donors who wish to join that are 45-60 years old may do so online at BetheMatch.org. For questions about donor suitability, contact Puget Sound Blood Center at [email protected] or by phone at 206-292-1897 or 1-800-DONATE1 x1897. Donors who are not suitable to join the national Registry can help patients in other ways such as making a financial contribution to tissue type other donors. See funding information below.
Steps to Donating Marrow
- If a donor is chosen for a patient, he or she will meet with a Puget Sound Blood Center representative to learn more about the donation process and undergo further testing. The patient s physician determines the type of donation that is best for the patient.
- The marrow collection process usually does not require an overnight stay in the hospital. The procedure itself is painless, because it is performed under anesthesia. But, for an average of two weeks following the procedure, most donors experience sore hips and some must restrict their activities. Even with some soreness, most donors report that donating marrow is a very positive experience and that they would be willing to donate again.
- The donated marrow is transfused to the patient, whose diseased cells have been destroyed by intensive chemotherapy. In time, the donated marrow engrafts and begins producing healthy blood cells.
Steps to Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells (PBSC)
- For four days before, and the day of, PBSC donation, the donor is given an injection of a medication called Filgrastim to increase the number of blood stem cells in their bloodstream.
- The peripheral blood stem cells are collected by apheresis, the same process used to collect platelets. The donor’s blood is removed through a sterile needle placed in a vein in one arm, and passed through an apheresis machine that separates out the blood stem cells. The remaining blood, minus the blood stem cells, is returned to the donor through a sterile needle in the other arm.
- Unlike marrow donation, PBSC donation does not require anesthesia the most significant risk of marrow donation. PBSC donors experience symptoms such as bone pain and muscle pain while receiving Filgrastim.
Why are More People of Color Needed?
Because patients are most likely to find a compatible donor within their own racial and ethnic background, a diverse group of potential donors is needed. Only a small percentage of the 10 million volunteer donors who have joined the national Registry are people of color. Percentage of ethnic groups on the national Registry:
- African American, 7%
- Asian/Pacific Islander, 7%
- Hispanic, 10%
- Native American, 1%
- Multi-Racial, 4%
- Caucasian, 73%
The total cost to add someone onto the registry is about $100.00. Because funding is limited, you may be asked for a financial contribution. Once a donor is found to match a patient, all medical costs of the collection are covered by the patient or patient’s medical insurance, as are donor expenses and other non-medical costs.
You can make a tax-deductible contribution to enable more volunteers to join the national marrow donor registry. Call the Blood Center’s Development Department at (206) 398-5968 or give to the Bone Marrow Program online. Your support gives hopeвЂ”and a second chance at lifeвЂ”to patients searching for that one volunteer donor who can cure them!
Risks of Donating Bone Marrow
What are the risks of donating bone marrow? If you are considering donating bone marrow for a loved one, or as a kindness to someone who is unrelated and coping with cancer or another condition in need of your stem cells, this is an important question to be asking. As with any medical procedure, donating these cells does have some risks, though in general it is considered a very safe process.
If instead of donating bone marrow you plan to donate peripheral blood stem cells (a donation done through a blood draw rather than a bone marrow biopsy procedure,) check out these possible risks of donating stem cells for transplant.
Bone Marrow Collection Methods
To understand the potential risks of donating bone marrow, it s helpful to talk briefly about the bone marrow collection process. Bone marrow is taken (doctors call it harvested ) through a needle which is inserted into your hip. (Your bone marrow is on the inside of large bones in your body such as your hip.)
This is usually done under a general anesthetic in the operating room using sterile technique. During the procedure, approximately 2 liters of bone marrow is withdrawn. This may seem like a large amount, but it represents less than 10% of your bone marrow. It may help to know that your body makes over 20 billion blood cells in your bone marrow every day. The number of cells in your bone marrow is usually completely back to normal levels within 4 to 6 weeks, though your body can function perfectly fine in the meantime.
Risks related to donating bone marrow are mostly related to the risk of the surgical procedure.
Anytime you have surgery, there are the risks of general anesthesia as well as the risk of bleeding and infection. There is also the risk that the procedure could cause injury to nerves and blood vessels near the site of the marrow withdrawal and damage to the bone.
Mild Side Effects/Risks
After donating bone marrow you may be sore in the region of your hip for a week or slightly more.
Among those who donated bone marrow as part of the National Marrow Donor Program, the majority of people experienced some back and hip pain for a few days, as well as fatigue. Side effects of anesthesia may also include a sore throat and nausea.
The procedure may be done as an outpatient, or you may spend a few days in the hospital. Some medical centers recommend taking 7 to 10 days off of work following the procedure, but some people feel up to returning to work much sooner. The median time (that is, the time after which 50% of people had and 50% hadn t) to get completely back to normal was 20 days.
Severe Side Effects/Risks
According to the National Marrow Donor Program, 2.4% of people who donate bone marrow experience a serious complication. Very few bone marrow donors suffer any long-term complications from their donation.
Around the world, researchers looked at over 27,000 people who had donated bone marrow in 35 countries. Of these people, there was one death and 12 serious events (mostly heart related) that were felt to be related to bone marrow donation.
Can You Meet the Recipient?
If you are donating for an anonymous recipient, you may be wondering if you will have the chance to meet the person whose life you may have saved.
Most agencies have fairly strict regulations about patient-donor contact, but you may wish to check out heartwarming stories of patients and donors meeting.
When considering any issue, it s important to weigh the risks against the benefits. The risks of bone marrow donation are small, but the benefits to those who may receive your donation can be priceless. That said, donating bone marrow is not for everyone, and it s important that you honor yourself in whatever choice you make. Only you can make the decision that is right for you.
American Society of Clinical Oncology. Cancer.Net. Donating Bone Marrow. 02/2015. http://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/diagnosing-cancer/tests-and-procedures/donating-bone-marrow
Be the Match National Bone Marrow Donor Program. Donating Bone Marrow. Accessed 02/06/16. https://bethematch.org/support-the-cause/donate-bone-marrow/donation-process/donating-bone-marrow/
Bosi, A., and B. Bartolozzi. Safety of bone marrow stem cell donation: a review. Transplant Proceedings. 2010. 42(6):2192-4.
Clinical Bone Marrow and Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Author: Kerry Atkinson and colleagues. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Halter, J., Kodera, Y., Ispizua, A. et al. Severe events in donors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell donation. Haematologica. 2009. 94(1):94-101.
Miller, J., Perry, E., Price, T. et al. Recovery and safety profiles of marrow and PBSC donors: experience of the National Marrow Donor Program. Biology of Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2008. 14(9 Suppl):29-36.
donating bone marrow
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