Tag: Causes

Online Fundraising Website and Software for Events and Causes #how #much #for #sperm #donation


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Your nonprofit’s online peer-to-peer fundraising solution

Empower your supporters to become life long fundraisers and cause ambassadors through peer-to-peer fundraising. With FirstGiving, you’ll raise more and keep more, with one of the most affordable, trusted, and experienced online fundraising websites in the market.

For over a decade, we’ve partnered with thousands of nonprofits, helping them execute and measure successful online peer-to-peer fundraising campaigns. Grow your network of donors, easily and effectively.

Trusted by those who know nonprofit fundraising best
We’re proud to power well known organizations like Special Olympics, The Humane Society, Habitat for Humanity, and many, many more.

Invigorate your nonprofit fundraising with peer-to-peer
With FirstGiving, Comfort Zone Camp supporters-turned-fundraisers raised over $522,000 for children coping with a family death. What could your organization raise? You’re not so different from Comfort Zone Camp. We even offer the capability to enable donors to cover your processing fees with our “Donor-pay-the-fee” option.

Free, individual pages for those who want to fundraise online
For individuals we aim to make it easy, effective, and even fun to fundraise online for your favorite nonprofit.

Looking to build your own fundraising website? Our API can help!
FirstGiving offers developers access to our API. Choose between simple copy/paste Javascript and powerful REST APIs.

Example Causes

CHILDRENS HOSPITAL AND HEALTH SYSTEM FOUNDATION


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Inflammation: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment – Medical News Today #best #place #to #donate #a

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Inflammation: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Inflammation is the body’s attempt at self-protection; the aim being to remove harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens – and begin the healing process .

When something harmful or irritating affects a part of our body, there is a biological response to try to remove it, the signs and symptoms of inflammation, specifically acute inflammation, show that the body is trying to heal itself.

Inflammation does not mean infection, even when an infection causes inflammation. Infection is caused by a bacterium, virus or fungus, while inflammation is the body’s response to it.

Contents of this article:

You will see introductions at the end of some sections to any recent developments that have been covered by MNT’s news stories. Also look out for links to information about related conditions.

Fast facts on inflammation

Here are some key points about inflammation. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

  • Inflammation is the body’s attempt at self-protection to remove harmful stimuli and begin the healing process.
  • Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response.
  • The first stage of inflammation is often called irritation, which then becomes inflammation – the immediate healing process.
  • Inflammation is followed by suppuration (discharging of pus ). Then there is the granulation stage, the formation in wounds of tiny, rounded masses of tissue during healing.
  • Acute inflammation – starts rapidly (rapid onset) and quickly becomes severe.
  • Chronic inflammation – this means long-term inflammation, which can last for several months and even years.
  • Our infections, wounds and any damage to tissue would never heal without inflammation – tissue would become more and more damaged and the body, or any organism, would eventually perish.
  • Chronic inflammation can eventually cause several diseases and conditions, including some cancers. rheumatoid arthritis. atherosclerosis. periodontitis. and hay fever .
  • Although scientists know that inflammation plays a key role in heart disease and several other illnesses, what drives inflammation in the first place is still a mystery.
  • It should be remembered that inflammation is part of the healing process. Sometimes reducing inflammation is necessary, but not always.

What is inflammation?

The word inflammation comes from the Latin “inflammo”. meaning “I set alight, I ignite” .

Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response. Initially, it is beneficial when, for example, your knee sustains a blow and tissues need care and protection. However, sometimes inflammation can cause further inflammation; it can become self-perpetuating. More inflammation is created in response to the existing inflammation.

Plaque in coronary artery disease linked to inflammation – scientists from Stanford University, California, linked 25 new genetic regions to coronary artery disease. They found that people with coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death globally, are most likely predisposed to the disease because they have gene variants linked to inflammation.

Inflammation helps wounds heal

Our immediate reaction to a swelling is to try to bring it down. Bearing in mind that inflammation is an essential part of the body’s attempt to heal itself, patients and doctors need to be sure that the treatments to reduce swelling are absolutely necessary and to not undermine or slow down the healing process.

The first stage of inflammation is often called irritation, which then becomes inflammation – the immediate healing process. Inflammation is followed by suppuration (discharging of pus). Then there is the granulation stage, the formation in wounds of tiny, rounded masses of tissue during healing. Inflammation is part of a complex biological response to harmful stimuli. Without inflammation, infections and wounds would never heal.

Neuroscientists at the Lerner Research Institute at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio found that inflammation actually helps to heal damaged muscle tissue. Their findings clash with how sportspeople with inflammation are treated – health professionals always try to control the inflammation to encourage healing. The researchers say their findings may lead to new therapies for acute muscle injuries caused by freeze damage, medications, chemicals and trauma.

Lan Zhou, M.D. Ph.D. said that patients should be very closely monitored when therapies to combat inflammation are used to make sure that the benefits of inflammation are not completely eliminated.

Inflammation is part of our innate immunity

Our innate immunity is what is naturally present in our bodies when we are born, and not the adaptive immunity we get after an infection or vaccination. Innate immunity is generally non-specific, while adaptive immunity is specific to one pathogen:

Whooping cough vaccine – example of immunity being specific to one pathogen

After being vaccinated for whooping cough (pertussis), we develop immunity to Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis. types of bacteria that cause pertussis. This is an example of adaptive immunity – the immunity was not there before receiving the vaccine.

Inflammation is seen as a mechanism of innate immunity.

What is the difference between chronic inflammation and acute inflammation?

Acute inflammation – starts rapidly (rapid onset) and quickly becomes severe. Signs and symptoms are only present for a few days, but in some cases may persist for a few weeks.

Examples of diseases, conditions, and situations which can result in acute inflammation include:

Chronic inflammation – this means long-term inflammation, which can last for several months and even years. It can result from:

  • Failure to eliminate whatever was causing an acute inflammation
  • An autoimmune response to a self antigen – the immune system attacks healthy tissue, mistaking it (them) for harmful pathogens
  • A chronic irritant of low intensity that persists.

Examples of diseases and conditions with chronic inflammation include:

Our infections, wounds and any damage to tissue would never heal without inflammation – tissue would become more and more damaged and the body, or any organism, would eventually perish.

However, chronic inflammation can eventually cause several diseases and conditions, including some cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, periodontitis, and hay fever. Inflammation needs to be well regulated.

On the next page we look at what happens during acute inflammation, the comparison of acute and chronic inflammation and why it causes pain. On the final page we discuss treatments for inflammation.


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Donate Computer – Causes Computer Donation Supports #where #can #i #donate #furniture


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Causes that Your Computer Donation Support Include:

It’s amazing how far technology has come in such a short time and the major impact computers now have in the lives of everyone in our world. Computer with Causes knows this firsthand throughout our many years of experience handling computer donations from generous donors such as you. Your computer donation may end up helping others in a school lab, foster home, homeless shelter or community center here in America, or may be gifted to important causes we/you support worldwide through our Global Education Computer Assistance Program.

Computers with causes evaluates each and every donation on a case by case basis. Whenever financially beneficial, computers with causes will repair, refurbish, and properly prepare donated property for placement.

Computer Equipment Donations that will really help include:

WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO SELL EQUIPMENT . Sometimes Computers with Causes receives computer equipment that doesn’t match the needs of the programs and individuals we support. During these rare times, we sell the equipment and use 100% of the proceeds to further our charitable program. This may include purchasing needed computer parts at less than wholesale, transporting bulk equipment donations, shipping fees we incur during the gifting process, or more pressing issues through Works of Life.

Apply for a Computer now. Our main goal is to provide a refurbished computer from one of our many generous donors towards an educational, or future learning program. This does not mean you are personally last on our growing list. We are deeply involved in providing computers to many needy individuals throughout the United states to better their future as well. Apply Now.

Your Computer Donations back to work.


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Cancer: Facts, Causes, Symptoms and Research #egg #donation


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Cancer: Facts, Causes, Symptoms and Research

Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.

Cancer harms the body when altered cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors (except in the case of leukemia where cancer prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream). Tumors can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems, and they can release hormones that alter body function. Tumors that stay in one spot and demonstrate limited growth are generally considered to be benign.

More dangerous, or malignant, tumors form when two things occur:

  1. a cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymphatic systems, destroying healthy tissue in a process called invasion
  2. that cell manages to divide and grow, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis.

When a tumor successfully spreads to other parts of the body and grows, invading and destroying other healthy tissues, it is said to have metastasized. This process itself is called metastasis, and the result is a serious condition that is very difficult to treat.

According to the American Cancer Society, Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US and accounts for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths. The World Health Organisation estimates that, worldwide, there were 14 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012 (their most recent data).

Individual types of cancer

There are said to be over 200 different types of cancer. We have the following common cancer types covered in individual Knowledge Center articles:

Latest cancer research

We are a leading publisher of worldwide cancer news and research. You can find all our latest news in our cancer news section.

The rest of this article will focus on what cancer is, what causes cancer, the symptoms, diagnosis and available treatments.

Fast facts on cancer

Here are some key points about cancer. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

  • More than 575,000 people die of cancer, and more than 1.5 million people are diagnosed with cancer per year in the US.
  • Cancer is considered to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
  • The financial costs of cancer in the US per year are an estimated $263.8 billion in medical costs and lost productivity.
  • African Americans are more likely to die of cancer than people of any other race or ethnicity.
  • It is believed that cancer risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco, limiting alcohol intake, limiting UV ray exposure from the sun and tanning beds and maintaining a healthy diet, level of fitness and seeking regular medical care.
  • Screening can locate cervical cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer at an early, treatable stage.
  • Vaccines such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine assists in preventing some cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and oral cancers. A vaccine for hepatitis B can reduce liver cancer risk.
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the numbers of new cancer cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next 20 years.
  • The most common sites of cancer among men are lung, prostate, colon, rectum, stomach and liver.
  • The most common sites of cancer among women are breast, colon, rectum, lung, cervix and stomach.

How cancer spreads

Scientists reported in Nature Communications (October 2012 issue) that they have discovered an important clue as to why cancer cells spread. It has something to do with their adhesion (stickiness) properties. Certain molecular interactions between cells and the scaffolding that holds them in place (extracellular matrix) cause them to become unstuck at the original tumor site, they become dislodged, move on and then reattach themselves at a new site.

The researchers say this discovery is important because cancer mortality is mainly due to metastatic tumors, those that grow from cells that have traveled from their original site to another part of the body. These are called secondary tumors. Only 10% of cancer deaths are caused by the primary tumors.

The scientists, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, say that finding a way to stop cancer cells from sticking to new sites could interfere with metastatic disease, and halt the growth of secondary tumors.

Malignant cells are more agile than non-malignant ones

Scientists from the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers, USA, reported in the journal Scientific Reports (April 2013 issue) that malignant cells are much “nimbler” than non-malignant ones. Malignant cells can pass more easily through smaller gaps, as well as applying a much greater force on their environment compared to other cells.

Professor Robert Austin and team created a new catalogue of the physical and chemical features of cancerous cells with over 100 scientists from 20 different centers across the United States.

The authors believe their catalogue will help oncologists detect cancerous cells in patients early on, thus preventing the spread of the disease to other parts of the body.

Prof. Austin said “By bringing together different types of experimental expertise to systematically compare metastatic and non-metastatic cells, we have advanced our knowledge of how metastasis occurs.”

Causes of cancer

Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control.

What is cancer? – Video

A short, 3D, animated introduction to cancer. This was originally created by BioDigital Systems and used in the Stand Up 2 Cancer telethon.

Genes – the DNA type

Cells can experience uncontrolled growth if there are mutations to DNA, and therefore, alterations to the genes involved in cell division. Four key types of gene are responsible for the cell division process: oncogenes tell cells when to divide, tumor suppressor genes tell cells when not to divide, suicide genes control apoptosis and tell the cell to kill itself if something goes wrong, and DNA-repair genes instruct a cell to repair damaged DNA.

Cancer occurs when a cell’s gene mutations make the cell unable to correct DNA damage and unable to commit suicide. Similarly, cancer is a result of mutations that inhibit oncogene and tumor suppressor gene function, leading to uncontrollable cell growth.

Carcinogens

Carcinogens are a class of substances that are directly responsible for damaging DNA, promoting or aiding cancer. Tobacco, asbestos, arsenic, radiation such as gamma and x-rays, the sun, and compounds in car exhaust fumes are all examples of carcinogens. When our bodies are exposed to carcinogens, free radicals are formed that try to steal electrons from other molecules in the body. Theses free radicals damage cells and affect their ability to function normally.

Genes – the family type

Cancer can be the result of a genetic predisposition that is inherited from family members. It is possible to be born with certain genetic mutations or a fault in a gene that makes one statistically more likely to develop cancer later in life.

Cancer and other medical factors

As we age, there is an increase in the number of possible cancer-causing mutations in our DNA. This makes age an important risk factor for cancer. Several viruses have also been linked to cancer such as: human papillomavirus (a cause of cervical cancer), hepatitis B and C (causes of liver cancer), and Epstein-Barr virus (a cause of some childhood cancers). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – and anything else that suppresses or weakens the immune system – inhibits the body’s ability to fight infections and increases the chance of developing cancer.

On the next page we look at the symptoms of cancer and how cancer is classified and diagnosed. On the final page we discuss treatments for cancer.

Written by Peter Crosta. Last update: 17 September 2015.


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Online Fundraising Website and Software for Events and Causes #пожертвовать


#eye donation

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Your nonprofit’s online peer-to-peer fundraising solution

Empower your supporters to become life long fundraisers and cause ambassadors through peer-to-peer fundraising. With FirstGiving, you’ll raise more and keep more, with one of the most affordable, trusted, and experienced online fundraising websites in the market.

For over a decade, we’ve partnered with thousands of nonprofits, helping them execute and measure successful online peer-to-peer fundraising campaigns. Grow your network of donors, easily and effectively.

Trusted by those who know nonprofit fundraising best
We’re proud to power well known organizations like Special Olympics, The Humane Society, Habitat for Humanity, and many, many more.

Invigorate your nonprofit fundraising with peer-to-peer
With FirstGiving, Comfort Zone Camp supporters-turned-fundraisers raised over $522,000 for children coping with a family death. What could your organization raise? You’re not so different from Comfort Zone Camp. We even offer the capability to enable donors to cover your processing fees with our “Donor-pay-the-fee” option.

Free, individual pages for those who want to fundraise online
For individuals we aim to make it easy, effective, and even fun to fundraise online for your favorite nonprofit.

Looking to build your own fundraising website? Our API can help!
FirstGiving offers developers access to our API. Choose between simple copy/paste Javascript and powerful REST APIs.

Example Causes

CHILDRENS HOSPITAL AND HEALTH SYSTEM FOUNDATION


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Mesothelioma: Symptoms and Causes #mesothelioma, #causes #of #mesothelioma, #mesothelioma #symptoms, #symptoms #of #mesothelioma, #asbestos,

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Mesothelioma: Causes and Symptoms

Mesothelioma is cancer of the mesothelium, a protective membrane that lines most of the body’s internal organs. Three out of every four cases cases of mesothelioma disease begin in the pleural mesothelium of the chest cavity. Mesothelioma can also begin in the abdominal cavity and around the heart .

Regardless of where they originate, malignant cells from the mesothelium can invade and damage nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also metastasize, or spread, to other parts of the body.

Often by the time mesothelioma is diagnosed, the disease is advanced. The five-year survival rate is around 5% to 10%. Most patients with mesothelioma die as a result of respiratory failure or pneumonia. Some patients develop a small-bowel obstruction when a tumor extends through the diaphragm. A smaller number die of cardiac complications when the tumor invades the pericardium — the thin membrane that surrounds the heart — and the heart itself.

Mesothelioma is a relatively rare form of cancer. About 3,000 new cases of the disease are diagnosed in the U.S. each year.

Causes of Mesothelioma

The main risk factor for mesothelioma is working with asbestos. Asbestos is a group of minerals with thin microscopic fibers. Because these fibers are resistant to heat, fire, and chemicals and do not conduct electricity, asbestos has been mined and used widely in the construction, automotive, and other industries.

If tiny asbestos fibers are released into the air, as they are in the manufacturing process, they can be inhaled or swallowed, leading to serious health problems. As many as 75% of mesothelioma cases can be linked to exposure to asbestos at work. There is also some evidence that family members and others living with asbestos workers have an increased risk of developing mesothelioma, and possibly other asbestos-related diseases. This risk may be the result of exposure to asbestos dust brought home on the clothing and hair of asbestos workers. Cases of mesothelioma have also been seen in people living close to asbestos mines.

However, mesothelioma has been reported in some individuals without any known exposure to asbestos. Other, uncommon, but possible causes include:

Continued

Zeolites. These minerals are chemically related to asbestos. One of these related minerals, erionite, is common in the soil in some areas of Turkey, according to the American Cancer Society. Exposure to erionite is believed to be responsible for high rates of mesothelioma rates in those areas.

Radiation . The American Cancer Society notes that there have been a few published reports of mesotheliomas that developed following exposure to high doses of radiation to the chest or abdomen or after injections of thorium dioxide (Thorotrast ), a material used by doctors in some chest X-rays until the 1950s.

SV40 virus. Some studies in laboratory animals have raised the possibility that infection with the simian virus 40 (SV40) might increase the risk of developing mesothelioma, according to the American Cancer Society. Some injectable polio vaccines given between 1955 and 1963 were contaminated with SV40, exposing as many as 30 million people in the U.S. to the virus. So far, the largest studies addressing this issue in humans have not found an increased risk for mesothelioma or other cancers among people who received the contaminated vaccines as children.

Genetics. Some experts believe certain people may be genetically predisposed to mesothelioma. Rates of the disease vary among populations.

Symptoms of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma symptoms commonly do not appear until 20 to 50 years after initial asbestos exposure.

The main symptoms of mesothelioma of the lungs are shortness of breath and chest pain. Accumulation of fluid in the pleura caused by the mesothelioma, if sufficiently large, may also contribute to the shortness of breath.

Symptoms of peritoneal (abdominal) mesothelioma can include:

If cancer has spread to other parts of the body, symptoms may include pain, swallowing difficulties, or swelling of the neck or face.

Because many conditions share these symptoms, having these symptoms doesn’t necessarily mean you have mesothelioma. It’s important to see your doctor to determine what is causing them.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on July 14, 2017

Sources

Brigham and Women’s Hospital International Mesothelioma Program: “Mesothelioma.”

National Cancer Institute: Fact Sheet: “Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk.”

National Cancer Institute: “Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers.”

American Cancer Society: “Detailed Guide: Malignant Mesothelioma What Are the Risk Factors for Malignant Mesothelioma?”

© 2017 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.


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Causes of heroin #causes #of #heroin


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Heroin

Heroin (diacetylmorphine) is a highly addictive Schedule I drug, and a heavily abused and extremely potent opiate. It is processed from morphine, a naturally-occurring substance extracted from the opium poppy – Papaver somniferum – a plant indigenous to the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Pure heroin, which is a bitter-tasting white powder, is rarely sold on the streets.1 Most that is sold is a powder varying in color from white to dark brown. The differences in color are due to impurities in the manufacturing process and/or the presence of other drugs or additives such as powdered milk or quinine.2 Another form of heroin known as “black tar” is available mostly in the western and southwestern United States. This form is primarily made in Mexico using crude processing methods.3 Currently, it has become an issue because it is cheaper than conventional heroin, but is extremely potent and addictive.

The opium poppy has had a long history. Our earliest knowledge of its cultivation dates back to the ancient Mesopotamian and Sumerian cultures, who passed it on to the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Egyptians. The Greeks introduced opium to Persia and India, where it was grown in mass quantities. In the eighteenth century, the British began exporting it to China, where they traded it for tea. Opium abuse reached epic proportions in China, where millions of people became addicted in the 1800’s. When the Chinese government tried to ban all opium imports in 1839, The First Opium War began, ending in the British taking Hong Kong. The Second Opium War of 1856 made opium imports into China legal again, still against the wishes of the Chinese government. Heroin was synthesized from morphine in 1874 by the pharmaceutical company Bayer and was touted as a safer, non-addictive form of morphine.4 It became a widely used drug in cough medicines and a variety of other ailments. By the beginning of the twentieth century, heroin was understood to be highly addictive and in 1914 was banned as part of the Harrison Narcotics Act.5

Heroin is most often injected intravenously for a quick and potent high, but there is a rising segment of users who sniff, snort, and smoke heroin to avoid the dangers of sharing needles.6 There are also reports of users sniffing liquefied heroin using a nasal spray bottle, a practice known as “shabanging.” Users have also been known to combine heroin and cocaine, snorting alternate lines or “crisscrossing,” or injecting the two drugs simultaneously, called “speedballing.”7 A common misconception is the idea that snorting or smoking heroin is not as addictive as injecting heroin. The truth is, however, that heroin is a highly addictive drug regardless of the route of administration.

Heroin’s Effects on the Brain

Heroin, like all opiates, works as a central nervous system depressant. In fact, the human brain contains numerous opiate receptors, as morphine is a naturally occurring chemical. Heroin and morphine are both chemically similar to endorphins, the body’s natural painkillers, as they all bind to those opiate receptors related to pain, movement and emotion.

The short-term effects of heroin abuse appear soon after a single dose and last for a few hours. Intravenous injection provides the greatest intensity and most rapid onset of effects, as users can feel peak effects after 7 to 8 seconds.8 Intramuscular injection produces the euphoric high within 5 to 8 minutes, and when the drug is sniffed or smoked, effects are felt within 10 to 15 minutes. After taking heroin, the user reports feeling a surge of euphoria (or a “rush”) accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, a dry mouth, and heavy extremities. Following this initial euphoria, the user goes “on the nod” for several hours – a period of alternating between a wakeful and drowsy state. Mental functioning becomes clouded due to the depression of the central nervous system. Also, breathing may become slowed to the point of respiratory failure. 9 Other short-term effects can include dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, and severe itching.

After repeated use of heroin, more long-term effects may begin to appear. Chronic users may develop collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses (pus-filled infections), liver disease, and lung-related complications such as pneumonia. In addition to the effects of the drug itself, some heroin may contain additives that do not easily dilute in the bloodstream, resulting in clogging of the blood vessels in the lungs, liver, kidneys, or brain. Overdose, severe addiction, and/or death may also occur following initial use. In addition to the dangers of the drug itself, users who inject heroin also put themselves at risk for contracting HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and other blood-borne pathogens. This type of risk is the cause for controversial “needle-exchange programs” that have been established in areas of highest heroin use. Yet another threat for heroin users is that they cannot know the real strength of the drug or its true contents, putting them at an increased risk for overdose or even death.

Addiction Withdrawal

One of the most significant effects of heroin use is addiction. Also, with regular use, a tolerance develops, where more and more heroin is needed to achieve the same effect. The average heroin addict can spend up to $200 per day to maintain his or her addiction. 10 As higher doses are taken over time physical dependence and addiction will develop. Within a few hours after the last administration of heroin, withdrawal may occur, producing intensely negative effects such as drug craving, restlessness, muscle and bone pain, and vomiting. Methadone and Buprenorphine, both semi-synthetic narcotic opiates, were developed as a way to minimize the drug’s severe withdrawal symptoms. In the worst cases, this withdrawal can even cause death. Many users continue abusing the drug even after they no longer experience the euphoric effects, simply to provide relief from the painful, flu-like withdrawal symptoms. In heavy users, major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose and subside after about a week.11

Overdosing is a very real danger for heroin users. It is far more common than one might expect; a 2001 study in Australia concluded that 54% of regular injecting drug users reported experiencing at least one non-fatal overdose in their lifetime.12 Signs of an overdose can include one or more of the following: extremely slow and shallow breathing, convulsions, pinpoint pupils, confusion, and possibly coma or death. 13 Someone who is overdosing should be taken to the hospital immediately.

Those who inject heroin use a set of paraphernalia that includes hypodermic needles, small cotton balls used to strain the drug, spoons or bottle caps for “cooking” (liquefying) the heroin, and a “tie-off” that the user wraps around his or her arm to make his or her veins protrude. Paraphernalia for sniffing or smoking heroin can include razor blades, straws, rolled dollar bills, and pipes. Also, balloons are used as a method of transporting and/or trafficking the drug.

  • Slang Terms for Heroin: Smack, Dope, Junk, Mud, Skag, Brown Sugar, Brown, ‘H’, Big H, Horse, Charley, China White, Boy, Harry, Mr. Brownstone, Dr. Feelgood
  • Use Users: Junkies – heroin addicts
    Mainlining – injecting heroin into a vein
    Skin-popping – injecting heroin just below the skin’s surface
    Chasing the Dragon – heating the drug until it begins to smoke, and inhaling the smoke through a straw
    Speedballing – injecting heroin combined with cocaine
    Crisscrossing – snorting heroin along with cocaine
    Shabanging – sniffing liquefied heroin from nasal spray bottle
    The Works / Outfit / Rig – a heroin user’s set of tools and paraphernalia used for injection
    Tie-off – used to tie around the arm (to constrict blood flow) in order to make a vein protrude

    1 InTheKnowZone Heroin Page. http://www.intheknowzone.com/heroin/index.htm. May 30, 2002.
    2 ONDCP Heroin Page. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/drugfact/heroin/index.html. May 30, 2002.
    3 ONDCP Heroin Page.
    4 ONDCP Heroin Page.
    5 ONCDP Heroin Page.
    6 NCADI Heroin Facts. http://www.tcada.state.tx.us/research/facts/heroin.html. May 30, 2002.
    7 NCADI Heroin Facts.
    8 ONDCP Heroin Page.
    9 NIDA Heroin Infofax. http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/heroin.html. May 30, 2002.
    10 InTheKnowZone Heroin Page.
    11 Partnership for a Drug-Free America Heroin Page.
    12 Paul Dietze et al. (2001). “The Context, Management and Prevention of Heroin Overdose in Victoria, Australia: The Promise of a Diverse Approach.” Addiction Research and Theory 9:437-458.
    13 InTheKnowZone Heroin Page.

    Drug Information

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  • Fundraising Online, Raise Money, Donate to Causes #vva #donations


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    Fundraising is now easy.

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    Free Fundraising Tools for Your Cause – Raise Money with Piryx

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    Piryx is 100% committed to the success of your cause and is determined to help you raise a lot more money when fundraising online. By using Piryx, we will empower your cause with many free Internet marketing and social media fundraising tools, along with lots of free fundraising ideas, tips, and the necessary fundraising tools that will help you increase donation volume and gain many new donors more effectively than traditional fundraisers.

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    If so, your political campaign can increase your donor base and donations by using the Piryx political fundraising and social giving platform today.

  • Got a church fundraiser that you need to raise money for?
    If so, you can raise money online and increase the amount of donations from your parishioners and church supporters by using the Piryx church fundraising and social giving platform today.

    Got a school fundraiser that you need to raise money for?
    If so, your school’s staff and students can increase your
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    school fundraising and social giving platform today.

  • Got a PTA fundraiser that you need to raise money for?
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    Got a club fundraiser that you need to raise money for?
    If so, your sports team can increase your donor base and volume of donations by using the Piryx club fundraising
    and social giving platform today.

  • Got a group fundraiser that you need to raise money for?
    If so, your group can increase your donor base and volume
    of donations by using the Piryx group fundraising and social giving platform today.

    Got a sports fundraiser that you need to raise money for?
    If so, your sports team can increase your donor base and volume of donations by using the Piryx sports fundraising
    and social giving platform today.

  • If you are looking to raise money for your corporate giving program or are an individual interested in donating to a number of corporate giving programs, you can do so today by using the Piryx social giving platform.

    Whether new to fundraising or an experienced fundraiser, Piryx offers free fundraising ideas to help you raise money online more effectively for your cause.

  • If you want to donate to charity, you can donate to the charity of your choice and find other charities and causes you might also care about on Piryx.


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  • Donate Computer – Causes Computer Donation Supports #donation #receipt


    #computer donations

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    Causes that Your Computer Donation Support Include:

    It’s amazing how far technology has come in such a short time and the major impact computers now have in the lives of everyone in our world. Computer with Causes knows this firsthand throughout our many years of experience handling computer donations from generous donors such as you. Your computer donation may end up helping others in a school lab, foster home, homeless shelter or community center here in America, or may be gifted to important causes we/you support worldwide through our Global Education Computer Assistance Program.

    Computers with causes evaluates each and every donation on a case by case basis. Whenever financially beneficial, computers with causes will repair, refurbish, and properly prepare donated property for placement.

    Computer Equipment Donations that will really help include:

    WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO SELL EQUIPMENT . Sometimes Computers with Causes receives computer equipment that doesn’t match the needs of the programs and individuals we support. During these rare times, we sell the equipment and use 100% of the proceeds to further our charitable program. This may include purchasing needed computer parts at less than wholesale, transporting bulk equipment donations, shipping fees we incur during the gifting process, or more pressing issues through Works of Life.

    Apply for a Computer now. Our main goal is to provide a refurbished computer from one of our many generous donors towards an educational, or future learning program. This does not mean you are personally last on our growing list. We are deeply involved in providing computers to many needy individuals throughout the United states to better their future as well. Apply Now.

    Your Computer Donations back to work.


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    Cancer: Facts, Causes, Symptoms and Research #donate #sofa


    #cancer research

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    Cancer: Facts, Causes, Symptoms and Research

    Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.

    Cancer harms the body when altered cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors (except in the case of leukemia where cancer prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream). Tumors can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems, and they can release hormones that alter body function. Tumors that stay in one spot and demonstrate limited growth are generally considered to be benign.

    More dangerous, or malignant, tumors form when two things occur:

    1. a cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymphatic systems, destroying healthy tissue in a process called invasion
    2. that cell manages to divide and grow, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis.

    When a tumor successfully spreads to other parts of the body and grows, invading and destroying other healthy tissues, it is said to have metastasized. This process itself is called metastasis, and the result is a serious condition that is very difficult to treat.

    According to the American Cancer Society, Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US and accounts for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths. The World Health Organisation estimates that, worldwide, there were 14 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012 (their most recent data).

    Individual types of cancer

    There are said to be over 200 different types of cancer. We have the following common cancer types covered in individual Knowledge Center articles:

    Latest cancer research

    We are a leading publisher of worldwide cancer news and research. You can find all our latest news in our cancer news section.

    The rest of this article will focus on what cancer is, what causes cancer, the symptoms, diagnosis and available treatments.

    Fast facts on cancer

    Here are some key points about cancer. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

    • More than 575,000 people die of cancer, and more than 1.5 million people are diagnosed with cancer per year in the US.
    • Cancer is considered to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
    • The financial costs of cancer in the US per year are an estimated $263.8 billion in medical costs and lost productivity.
    • African Americans are more likely to die of cancer than people of any other race or ethnicity.
    • It is believed that cancer risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco, limiting alcohol intake, limiting UV ray exposure from the sun and tanning beds and maintaining a healthy diet, level of fitness and seeking regular medical care.
    • Screening can locate cervical cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer at an early, treatable stage.
    • Vaccines such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine assists in preventing some cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and oral cancers. A vaccine for hepatitis B can reduce liver cancer risk.
    • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the numbers of new cancer cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next 20 years.
    • The most common sites of cancer among men are lung, prostate, colon, rectum, stomach and liver.
    • The most common sites of cancer among women are breast, colon, rectum, lung, cervix and stomach.

    How cancer spreads

    Scientists reported in Nature Communications (October 2012 issue) that they have discovered an important clue as to why cancer cells spread. It has something to do with their adhesion (stickiness) properties. Certain molecular interactions between cells and the scaffolding that holds them in place (extracellular matrix) cause them to become unstuck at the original tumor site, they become dislodged, move on and then reattach themselves at a new site.

    The researchers say this discovery is important because cancer mortality is mainly due to metastatic tumors, those that grow from cells that have traveled from their original site to another part of the body. These are called secondary tumors. Only 10% of cancer deaths are caused by the primary tumors.

    The scientists, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, say that finding a way to stop cancer cells from sticking to new sites could interfere with metastatic disease, and halt the growth of secondary tumors.

    Malignant cells are more agile than non-malignant ones

    Scientists from the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers, USA, reported in the journal Scientific Reports (April 2013 issue) that malignant cells are much “nimbler” than non-malignant ones. Malignant cells can pass more easily through smaller gaps, as well as applying a much greater force on their environment compared to other cells.

    Professor Robert Austin and team created a new catalogue of the physical and chemical features of cancerous cells with over 100 scientists from 20 different centers across the United States.

    The authors believe their catalogue will help oncologists detect cancerous cells in patients early on, thus preventing the spread of the disease to other parts of the body.

    Prof. Austin said “By bringing together different types of experimental expertise to systematically compare metastatic and non-metastatic cells, we have advanced our knowledge of how metastasis occurs.”

    Causes of cancer

    Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control.

    What is cancer? – Video

    A short, 3D, animated introduction to cancer. This was originally created by BioDigital Systems and used in the Stand Up 2 Cancer telethon.

    Genes – the DNA type

    Cells can experience uncontrolled growth if there are mutations to DNA, and therefore, alterations to the genes involved in cell division. Four key types of gene are responsible for the cell division process: oncogenes tell cells when to divide, tumor suppressor genes tell cells when not to divide, suicide genes control apoptosis and tell the cell to kill itself if something goes wrong, and DNA-repair genes instruct a cell to repair damaged DNA.

    Cancer occurs when a cell’s gene mutations make the cell unable to correct DNA damage and unable to commit suicide. Similarly, cancer is a result of mutations that inhibit oncogene and tumor suppressor gene function, leading to uncontrollable cell growth.

    Carcinogens

    Carcinogens are a class of substances that are directly responsible for damaging DNA, promoting or aiding cancer. Tobacco, asbestos, arsenic, radiation such as gamma and x-rays, the sun, and compounds in car exhaust fumes are all examples of carcinogens. When our bodies are exposed to carcinogens, free radicals are formed that try to steal electrons from other molecules in the body. Theses free radicals damage cells and affect their ability to function normally.

    Genes – the family type

    Cancer can be the result of a genetic predisposition that is inherited from family members. It is possible to be born with certain genetic mutations or a fault in a gene that makes one statistically more likely to develop cancer later in life.

    Cancer and other medical factors

    As we age, there is an increase in the number of possible cancer-causing mutations in our DNA. This makes age an important risk factor for cancer. Several viruses have also been linked to cancer such as: human papillomavirus (a cause of cervical cancer), hepatitis B and C (causes of liver cancer), and Epstein-Barr virus (a cause of some childhood cancers). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – and anything else that suppresses or weakens the immune system – inhibits the body’s ability to fight infections and increases the chance of developing cancer.

    On the next page we look at the symptoms of cancer and how cancer is classified and diagnosed. On the final page we discuss treatments for cancer.

    Written by Peter Crosta. Last update: 17 September 2015.


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