Tag: Addiction

Reflective Practice in Social Work #social #worker, #social #work, #clinical, #medical, #social #services, #addiction,


Eye on Ethics

Reflective Practice in Social Work — The Ethical Dimension
By Frederic G. Reamer, PhD
April 2013

Recently, I received an urgent voicemail message from a hospital social worker: “Please get back to me as soon as possible. I have a meeting tomorrow morning with our head of human resources, and I’m very nervous about it.”

Later in the day, I connected with the social worker and learned the following: He had been employed by the hospital for seven years and had never been disciplined. His current predicament began when his immediate supervisor called him in to discuss concerns about possible boundary violations and an alleged inappropriate dual relationship with a hospital patient. The social worker explained to me that in his personal life he is actively involved in a community-based group of parents who adopted children from China. The group sponsors a wide range of activities to support and enhance the children’s ethnic identity. Through this involvement, the social worker said, he and his wife had become very friendly with several other adoptive parents.

About three weeks earlier, one of the parents who had become a good friend was admitted to the social worker’s hospital for treatment of a chronic, debilitating infection. The friend did not receive social work services. During the friend’s hospital stay, the social worker occasionally stopped by his room to say hello and inquire about the friend’s health. The patient’s attending physician had collaborated professionally with the social worker in other hospital cases and was well aware of the patient’s friendship with the social worker.

One afternoon during the patient’s hospital stay, the physician contacted the social worker and explained that the patient was distraught after having just learned that he was diagnosed with bone cancer. According to the social worker, the physician asked the social worker to visit the patient and offer emotional support. The social worker visited the patient in his room and spent about an hour helping his friend process the distressing medical news.

The social worker documented this patient encounter in the hospital chart. During a random quality-control review of social workers’ chart entries, the hospital’s social work supervisor read the note and became concerned because the social worker had not been assigned to provide social work services to this patient. The supervisor learned of the social worker and patient’s friendship and notified the director of human resources, who documented this “incident” in the social worker’s personnel record and asked to meet with the social worker.

The Nature of Reflective Practice
In 1983, the late scholar Donald Schon published his influential and groundbreaking book The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action . Schon’s thesis, based on his extensive empirical research, was that the most skilled and effective professionals have the ability to pay critical attention to the way they conduct their work at the same time that they do their work. Schon coined the terms “knowing-in-action” and “reflection-in-action,” which suggest that some professionals can take a step back and think hard about what they are doing while they are doing it. The concepts are akin to the widely used social work concept “use of self.”

Ordinarily the concepts of knowing-in-action and reflection-in-action are applied to practitioners’ cultivation and use of technical skill, whether in surgery, architecture, town planning, engineering, dentistry, or psychotherapy. In my view, and as the above case demonstrates, social workers would do well to extend the application of these compelling concepts to their identification and management of ethical issues in the profession. Ideally, effective practitioners would have the ability to recognize and address ethical issues and challenges as they arise in the immediate context of their work, not later when someone else points them out. Put another way, social workers would have a refined “ethics radar” that increases their ability to detect and respond to ethical issues.

Of course, the most important benefit is client protection. However, an important by-product is self-protection, that is, the increased likelihood that social workers will protect themselves from ethics-related complaints.

Implementing Reflective Ethics Practice
Certainly the hospital social worker who called me with panic in his voice would have benefited from reflective ethics practice and highly sensitive ethics radar. Had he reflected on the ethical dimensions of the boundary challenges that emerged when he interacted with his friend and hospital patient, it is likely that this well-meaning practitioner would have avoided his unpleasant encounter with the human resources department. The social worker’s decision to visit his friend was not the error; that was a humane and compassionate gesture. The error, rather, was not reflecting on his role in that moment and managing the boundaries carefully, including discussing them with his friend and his supervisor.

In my experience, ethics-related reflection-in-action entails three key elements.

Knowledge: Skillful management of many ethical dilemmas requires knowledge of core concepts and prevailing standards. Ethics concepts are addressed in professional literature and standards exist in several forms, including relevant codes of ethics, agency policies, statutes, and regulations. For example, the National Association of Social Workers’ Codeof Ethics includes explicit standards pertaining to boundaries, dual relationships, and conflicts of interest (especially section 1.06). It would have been best for the hospital-based social worker to consult relevant literature and standards with regard to conflicts that can arise when a social worker encounters a friend or social acquaintance in the work setting. The hospital’s personnel policies also prohibit dual relationships that involve conflicts of interest.

In some cases, although not all, statutes and regulations address ethical issues. In the United States, both federal and state laws address various ethical issues, such as confidentiality, privileged communication, informed consent, and social workers’ ethical conduct. Such laws would not have been particularly helpful in the hospital social worker’s case, but often they are helpful and critically important, for example, when social workers must decide whether to disclose confidential information without clients’ consent to protect a third party from harm or whether parental consent is necessary to provide services to minors who seek help with substance abuse but insist that this information be withheld from their parents.

Transparency: Reflective social workers who sense an ethical issue share their concern with supervisors, colleagues, and appropriate administrators. An effective way to protect clients and practitioners alike is to avoid any suggestion that the ethical issue is being handled “in the dark.” Such clarity demonstrates social workers’ good faith efforts to manage ethical dilemmas responsibly. When appropriate, clients should be included in the conversation.

Process: Although some ethical decisions are clear-cut, many are not. The hospital social worker who contacted me was unsure about the best way to manage his involvement with a good friend who had become a patient. Unfortunately, the social worker did not notify his supervisor about the dilemma or seek consultation. He documented his lengthy hospital-room encounter with the patient, but doing so in the client’s hospital chart created the impression that the social worker was functioning in his professional capacity, not as a friend. My hunch is that had the social worker notified his supervisor of his friendship with the patient and made clear that any contact with the patient occurred as a friend, the social worker may have avoided any adverse personnel issues. What I have learned is that many ethical decisions are not simple events; they require a considerable, often painstaking, process.

During the course of the profession’s history, social workers have refined the art of reflective practice. Historically, these skills have been applied primarily to clinical, policy, advocacy, and administrative functions. Clearly, reflective practice should extend to ethics as well.

— Frederic G. Reamer, PhD, is a professor in the graduate program of the School of Social Work, Rhode Island College. He is the author of many books and articles, and his research has addressed mental health, healthcare, criminal justice, and professional ethics.

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Marijuana may help combat substance abuse, mental health disorders #marijuana #addiction #help


Marijuana may help combat substance abuse, mental health disorders

Published Wednesday 16 November 2016 Published Wed 16 Nov 2016

Contrary to research that suggests marijuana may act as a gateway drug, encouraging the use of other harmful substances, a new study indicates it may have the opposite effect.

The new review suggests marijuana may help treat substance use disorders and some mental health conditions.

In the journal Clinical Psychology Review. researchers suggest marijuana use has the potential to help treat some individuals with substance use disorders, such as opioid addiction.

What is more, the review – led by Zach Walsh, an associate professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia in Canada – suggests using marijuana could help alleviate symptoms of some mental health conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

While marijuana, or cannabis, remains the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, with around 22.2 million users in the past month, it is becoming increasingly legalized for medical and/or recreational purposes.

In relation to the drug’s therapeutic potential, some studies have suggested marijuana can help treat pain, inflammation. epileptic seizures, and even Alzheimer’s disease.

Additionally, many patients and advocates of medical marijuana claim the drug has the potential to treat mental health issues and substance use disorders, and the new study by Walsh and team suggests that, in some cases, these individuals may be right.

Marijuana may be an effective ‘exit drug’

The researchers came to their conclusion after conducting a systematic review of 60 studies assessing the effects of either medical or non-medical marijuana on mental health and substance abuse.

The analysis revealed that medical marijuana shows potential for treating symptoms of PTSD, depression. and social anxiety.

However, for patients with psychotic disorders – such as bipolar disorder – the team found non-medical marijuana use may be problematic.

Additionally, the review indicates that medical marijuana use may help some individuals with substance use disorders by acting as a substitute.

“Research suggests that people may be using cannabis as an exit drug to reduce the use of substances that are potentially more harmful, such as opioid pain medication,” Walsh explains.

The evidence to date suggests that medical marijuana does not raise the risk of self-harm or harm to others, the researchers note, although they caution that acute marijuana intoxication and recent use of medical marijuana may affect short-term memory and other cognitive functions.

The team concludes that more research is required to further assess the effects of marijuana use on mental health and substance abuse. This is particularly important given the increase in marijuana legalization in the U.S. and in Canada, marijuana may be legalized as early as 2017.

” There is not currently a lot of clear guidance on how mental health professionals can best work with people who are using cannabis for medical purposes. With the end of prohibition, telling people to simply stop using may no longer be as feasible an option. Knowing how to consider cannabis in the treatment equation will become a necessity.”

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Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review, Zach Walsh et al. Clinical Psychology Review. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.002, published online 12 October 2016, abstract.

University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus news release. accessed 16 November 2016 via EurekAlert.

Additional source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, What is the scope of marijuana use in the United States?. accessed 16 November 2016.

Visit our Alcohol / Addiction / Illegal Drugs category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Alcohol / Addiction / Illegal Drugs.

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Medical marijuana laws linked to greater increase in illicit use, disorders A new study published in JAMA Psychiatry finds that states with medical marijuana laws have seen a higher increase in illicit marijuana use and disorders. Read More

Mental and substance use disorders ‘leading cause of non-fatal illness’ Researchers say that mental and substance use disorders combined were the leading cause of global non-fatal illness in 2010, according to an analysis of a worldwide diseases study. Read More

‘Limited evidence’ to support medical marijuana beyond treating MS symptoms The American Academy of Neurology supports the use of medical marijuana to treat MS, but states there is not enough evidence to support it as a treatment for other brain diseases. Read More

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Comments (1)

in my opion medical marijuana would be useful to treat depression. i also feel it could be used in the treatment of crack addiction because i am a recovered crack addict and i found it to be benificial in my recovery. i also live in a drug free community where people get drug tested and find that people will use crack rather than use pot, because for their jobs and living situation crack only stays in your blood for three days, when pot stays for thirty days. people i talk to only smoke crack because it kills pain mentally and physically and are less likely to not be caught and subject to prosecution and being fired or evicted.

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Long Island Center for Recovery #long #island #center #for #recovery, #licr, #new #york, #long


Long Island Addiction Treatment

If you or a loved one is in need of addiction treatment services in the Long Island area, or in New York, please contact us for help. All calls are confidential and you are under no obligation to follow up with our recommendations. Major insurances are accepted and private pay options are available.

Long Island Center for Recovery (LICR) is a comprehensive rehab center providing addiction treatment and recovery for adults struggling with alcohol addiction, drug addiction, addiction to prescription drugs such as depressants, opioids and stimulants. Our 50-bed inpatient rehab was established in 1995 by Jack Hamilton, one of the first individuals to bring Narcotics Anonymous meetings to the local New York communities. In carrying out Mr. Hamilton’s vision of providing compassionate, professional and affordable care, our alcohol and drug rehab offers a complete range of addiction treatment services including detox, inpatient and outpatient treatment, all in our Long Island rehab location.

LICR’s mission is to promote physical, emotional and spiritual well-being in our clients utilizing private and group settings by traditional evidence-based treatment techniques and holistic therapies. Our treatment programs incorporate a didactic approach to addiction treatment, with conservative experiential and expressive therapies. In addition, as the primary focus of LICR’s drug and alcohol rehab programs, multiple therapeutic groups emphasize commitment, spirituality, and responsibility through the 12 step philosophy.

At Long Island Center for Recovery we believe that recovery from the disease of addiction is possible through learning from our mistakes which enables us to develop spiritually, emotionally and mentally into a more responsible and mature person.

Long Island Center for Recovery

Empowering Recovering Individuals to Solve Life’s Challenges

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Public Health – Prevention #public #health #and #prevention, #public #health #and #prevention #education, #public


  • Fading Immunity May Be Behind Mumps Epidemic Dr Paul Offit discusses potential weaknesses in the MMR vaccine, and ongoing efforts to address them.

Medscape Infectious Diseases. March 17, 2017

  • Pornography: A Public Health Problem? Ethicist Art Caplan discusses whether pornography should be considered a public health concern.

    Medscape Business of Medicine. May 30, 2017

  • Landmark Trial: Patient-Generated Data Improve Cancer Survival An improvement in survival among cancer patients has validated patient-reported data, according to Eric Topol.

    Medscape. June 7, 2017

  • Best Practices in Asthma: MDI Missteps to Adherence In their second interview, Drs Vega and Adams discuss how to mitigate common mistakes that patients make with asthma devices.

    Medscape Family Medicine. May 1, 2017

  • CDC’s Emergency Drugs for US Clinicians and Hospitals Suspect a case of botulism or malaria? You’ll soon find that your local pharmacy doesn’t stock antitoxin or artesunate. You can get these lifesaving drugs quickly from CDC. Here’s how.

    CDC Expert Commentary. June 5, 2017

  • Postmarket Drug Safety: The View From the FDA Two recent studies have raised potential concerns about the safety of newly approved drugs. What is the FDA’s safety monitoring process, and are changes needed? Medscape spoke with FDA to find out.

    FDA Expert Commentaries and Interviews. May 19, 2017

  • Drug addiction blogs #drug #addiction #blogs


    Ibogaine for Addiction Therapy

    Ibogaine is an experimental alternative treatment for substance addiction. It has been recognized as a drug that can vastly reduce the symptoms of drug withdrawals and may have the ability to interrupt pathways in the brain that have been conditioned to support a addiction. Large doses of ibogaine have been shown to temporarily eliminate substance-related cravings. Ibogaine is the active chemical in the African Tabernanthe iboga root that is used in traditional ceremonies and rituals in West African Bwiti religion. The root has strong, long lasting psychedelic qualities, including intense hallucinations and as such is a Schedule I drug in the United States. It should be noted that the drug does not have addictive qualities and is unlikely to be a popular recreational substance.

    Ibogaine has been found to have therapeutic benefits for individuals who suffer from addiction, particularly opiate addiction. It has also been found to provide effective relief for people suffering methamphetamine, alcohol or cocaine addiction or obsessive compulsive disorders. Advocates of ibogaine suggest that the drug has an 80 percent success rate when opiate addicts are treated.

    Ibogaine has benefits for treating addiction because of the way it acts on receptor systems. It has been found to reset the dopamine uptake pathways in the brain which then can help to stop conditioned responses to a drug. It is also believed that the drug changes habitual thought patterns and restores normal levels of neurochemistry. Additionally, the strong psychedelic qualities of the drug have benefits for individuals who have difficult psychological concerns that contribute to their drug abuse.

    Ibogaine is an Experimental Treatment

    Because ibogaine is an experimental treatment, it should never be used except by authorized and approved therapists. It must be taken with extreme care and caution and only be administered under strict medical supervision. There are very few approved ibogaine treatment centers in the world, but some are set up in Mexico, Australia and parts of Europe. Estimates suggest that the drug has a mortality rate of 1 in 300. A thorough medical evaluation should always be conducted prior to the treatment along with a psychiatric assessment. Individuals who have heart conditions, high blood pressure, are at risk of stroke or aneurysm, have liver or kidney disease or hypoglycemia should not use this drug. Additionally, people who have a history of psychological illness should avoid this using this substance.

    Ibogaine has a number of serious side effects. These include severe nausea, vomiting, numbness of skin plus intense auditory and visual hallucinations which last up to 20 hours on a single dose. Users will often be immobilized during the experience and experience sleeplessness for a few days after ingestion. When under the influence, people may have anxiety, physical discomfort and intense emotional distortions which can be both comforting and scary.

    Autobiographical Hallucinations

    One of the most significant effects of ibogaine is the psychological healing that the drug can provide to some people. The hallucinations that most people experience when under the influence of the drug typically include replays of life events, trauma, events that have lead to the addiction, people they are associated with and also reasons and causes of their addiction. Many people report finding answers to questions about themselves and their lives and that they have a deeper understanding of their place in the world and the reason for being. A new way of life and a new sense of self is often an important starting point for many people trying to break their addiction.

    Ibogaine has benefits for resolving trauma, aggression, fear and grief. People will experience acute and critical insights into their problems in a non-confrontational and dream-like state. It is believed that the drug causes an awakened dream state where the conscious and unconscious are merged and current issues or situations are traced back to past events.

    Many people will find that they undergo an intense emotional upheaval when under the influence of ibogaine. The drug can be tiring physically and emotionally because of the serious and all-encompassing nature of the hallucinations. People can be forced to face traumatic and upsetting events and memories that are blocking future development and change. The nature of this introspection is important for people with a substance addiction as they are often treating their emotions and problems with a drug. Treatment with this drug should also include psychotherapy in the period after the drug has been used to help a person comprehend and deal with the issues the drug has brought to a head.

    Cautionary Warning

    With any treatment for substance abuse, individuals should always remember that there is no quick fix. Although this experimental alternative treatment appears to offer significant and impressive results, it is potentially dangerous and needs to be studied in further detail. Substance abuse occurs because of many different reasons and is contributed to by many things that need to be resolved entirely for a person to recover from the addiction. Ibogaine could possibly provide relief and a cure for some people, but not always.

    Begin your journey today. Enroll in DARA Thailand’s First Step 7-day Program

    DARA Thailand is Asia’s premier and leading international destination for drug rehab and alcohol addiction treatment. If you or a loved one needs help with addiction, please contact DARA Thailand today. Admissions counselors are available 24/7.

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    NYC Rehab Centers, Alcohol Abuse Rehab Treatment Rochester Call (585) 213-1210 Now For Help?


    NYC Rehab Centers, your truly the best
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    Alcohol Abuse Rehab Treatment Rochester

    Get Help Now with Alcohol Abuse Rehab Treatment Rochester

    For the people who are afflicted by dependency to drugs and/or alcohol, and also for people that have loved ones affected by dependency to drugs or alcohol, living with addiction is an all-encompassing, excruciating, unhappy experience. Rehabilitation, or rehab, is a treatment method intended to help addicts come to understand their dependency. learn to recognize and avoid triggers that make them use, and learn to live life as a recovering addict. In order to meet the physical, psychological, social, medical, vocational, and emotional requirements of all their clients, Alcohol Abuse Rehab Treatment Rochester develops individualized, custom-made rehabilitation plans, and offers a healthy, kind environment for addicts who are able to start the recovery process.

    Services Available at Alcohol Abuse Rehab Treatment Rochester

    Unfortunately, because of the stigma of being ‘an addict,’ a lot of people conceal their problems with addiction from their family members, and on occasion families conceal problems with addiction from the outside world. This is a very typical reaction to addiction, but hiding problems with dependency regularly results in bitterness and frustration among family members, friends, and the addict. In these particular circumstances, interventions are the best way to persuade an addict to go into rehabilitation, and Intervention in Rochester, NY strongly urges the use of a counselor, or an interventionist (an intervention specialist) to conduct the intervention itself. Interventions help the addict by effectively persuading them to enter rehabilitation, and help the friends and loved ones of an addict by giving them a safe environment to verbalize their concerns, irritation, and bitterness.

    Detox is another process that can’t be mistaken for rehab, and it’s very important to understand that detox will not ‘cure’ an addict from their problems. Detox, or detoxification, is a good first step towards recovery, and will help the addict properly and swiftly withdraw from the substance(s) they re addicted to, sometimes with the aid of medication. Social detoxification is a form of detox that takes place in a residential or outpatient facility, and mostly involves educating the addict and readying them for treatment. Medically supervised detoxification (often referred to as medically supervised withdrawal) occurs in a hospital or inpatient facility so the addict’s withdrawal may be monitored by a nurse or medical doctor. Detoxification Centers Rochester, NY provides both varieties of detox, depending on the requirements of their clients.

    Drug Rehab Center Rochester provides rehabilitation for people at all levels of dependency, whether they ve only begun displaying signs of dependency, or are persistent abusers drugs and alcohol. Their treatment programs include, but aren t limited to, treatment for alcohol, opiates (heroin, codeine), prescription drugs (pharmaceuticals, hydrocodone, oxycodone), designer drugs (bath salts, many stimulants), crystal meth, cocaine, hallucinogens, and marijuana. Substance Abuse Rochester, NY provides the most powerful, efficient treatment by assessing the nature of the addiction, any contributing psychological components (like co-occurring disorders), and the best path to recovery for every individual client.

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    Clients of Alcohol Abuse Rehab Treatment Rochester’s residential treatment programs can anticipate care that includes the most efficient parts of inpatient (like 24/7 supervision and access to the medical staff) and outpatient treatment (such as comfortable, home-like accommodations and contact with real world conditions and problems). Rehab plans are custom-made based on the client’s needs, so no two are exactly the same. However, clients can expect to participate in group or individual counseling, behavioral modeling programs, daily support meetings, recreational activities, and daily trips to the gym, all from the comfort of an attractive residential home. Contact (585) 213-1210 to talk with Alcohol Abuse Rehab Treatment Rochester’s recovery professionals for more details regarding substance abuse in general, interventions, detox, or rehab facilities.

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    Specialization in Addictions Masters Degrees – Counseling Psychology – Graduate School of Education and


    Master of Arts in Professional Mental Health Counseling – Specialization in Addictions

    Program Details

    Credits. 62 semester hours
    Program Length. 9 semesters (part-time and full-time study available)*
    Program Start. Fall only
    View program of study in current course catalog
    View application requirements and deadlines
    Program Co-Directors. Cort Dorn-Medeiros, Ph.D. and Stella Kerl-McClain, Ph.D.

    The Master of Arts in Professional Mental Health Counseling – Specialization in Addictions thoroughly integrates preparation for addictions counseling with general mental health/community counseling. Students completing this master of arts degree program are prepared to pursue licensure as licensed professional counselors and certification as drug and alcohol counselors (CADC-I). This preparation is recognized in Oregon and most other states in the U.S. For more information on accreditation and licensure information, see this page.

    We also offer specific coursework that prepares students to work with clients who have alcohol and drug addiction, disordered eating, and problem gambling. More information here.

    Master of Science Option

    Program Details

    Credits: Minimum of 66 semester hours
    No direct admission is available for this program (see below)
    Thesis project required
    View program of study in current course catalog

    There is also a Master of Science option for the Professional Mental Health Counseling—Specialization in Addictions program. The MS curriculum is for students who have interest and potential in psychological research. Students must first be accepted into the MA concentration. Admission to the MS concentration requires that the student be active, successfully complete CPSY 530 Research Methods and Statistics I with a grade of B or better, complete CPSY 531 Research Methods and Statistics II, present a preliminary research proposal, secure the commitment of a faculty adviser to chair a thesis committee, have a defined timeline for completion of the project, and have formally applied to the MS program. Full admission is granted when the faculty approves a proposal that meets these criteria.

    Advising and Contact Information

    Faculty Advisors and Clinical Coordinators

    Adjunct Faculty

    Charles Dickerman, MA, LMFT, CADC I; Mark Douglass, MA, LPC, CADC I; Margaret Eichler, Ph.D.; James Gurule, MA; Meg Jeske, MA, LPC; Antonia Mueller, MS, LPC; Tanya Prather, PhD; Sally Rasmussen, MA, LPC; Richard Rosenberg, Ph.D.; Suzanne Schmidt, MS; Julianna Vermeys, MA

    Note: Additional adjunct faculty teach courses in other programs. Many of those courses can be taken for elective credit by Professional Mental Health Counseling students.

    Forms and Documents

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    How Long Do Benzo Withdrawal Symptoms Last? #benzo #addiction #signs


    How Long Does Benzo Withdrawal Last?

    What is the Withdrawal Time for Benzos?

    Most benzo withdrawal symptoms start within 24 hours and can last from a few days to several months, depending on the length of the abuse and the strength of the benzo used. Prolonged withdrawal isn t uncommon, however. About 10 percent of people who abuse benzos still feel withdrawal symptoms years after they have stopped taking the drugs.

    Table of Contents

    There is no specific timeline dictating exactly how long withdrawal from a benzo, or benzodiazepine, medication will last.

    While each individual may experience withdrawal differently, certain estimations can be made. Benzodiazepine withdrawal duration and intensity depend on several factors, including:

    • Length of time taking benzodiazepines
    • Dosage amount
    • Type of drug used/abused
    • Method used to take or abuse benzodiazepines
    • Underlying medical or mental health issues
    • Abuse of other drugs or alcohol concurrently
    • Family history and/or previous drug or alcohol dependency

    Benzodiazepines are Schedule IV controlled substances per the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). They are sedatives and tranquilizers prescribed to treat symptoms of insomnia, anxiety, panic, seizure disorders, and muscle tensions or spasms. Common benzodiazepines include Xanax (alprazolam), Klonopin (clonazepam), Restoril (temazepam), Ativan (lorazepam), and Valium (diazepam). Alprazolam, the generic name for Xanax, was the 13th most prescribed medication in the country in 2012, according to a survey done by IMS Health .

    These medications are regularly taken recreationally, or abused for nonmedical purposes, in addition to being taken as legitimate prescriptions.

    Onset of Withdrawal

    Benzodiazepines are not intended to be taken long-term, as prolonged use or abuse can cause the brain to become both physically and psychologically dependent on them.

    Withdrawal symptoms, ranging from a return of uncomfortable psychological symptoms to physical manifestations such as nausea and diarrhea, may occur when the drugs are removed from the bloodstream. Family history of drug dependency or previous issues with substance abuse and/or dependency may increase the likelihood of developing a dependency on a benzodiazepine and may potentially add to the withdrawal timeline duration as well.

    Each benzodiazepine medication has a specific half-life that influences the length of time it takes for the drug to leave the bloodstream. If an individual is dependent on a benzo, once the drug is purged from the body, withdrawal may begin. For shorter-acting benzos like Xanax, withdrawal may start within 10-12 hours of stopping the drug. With a longer-acting benzodiazepine such as Valium, it may take a few days for symptoms to appear. Withdrawal side effects are not generally lethal, although they are best managed with professional medical attention and supervision.

    Individuals taking benzos for several months or more and in high doses are likely to experience more withdrawal symptoms that last longer than those taking smaller doses for a shorter length of time. For example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that patients taking doses of 4 mg/day or higher of Xanax for longer than three months were more likely to become dependent on the drug and therefore more likely to experience more uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms than those taking smaller doses for less time.

    Some short-acting benzodiazepines, like Xanax, are thought to be more potent than some of the longer-acting ones, such as Valium, as well. While withdrawal will be similar for both, users of short-acting benzos may experience withdrawal symptoms sooner and with more intensity, as benzos with longer half-lives will stay in the body longer, therefore slowing the onset of withdrawal.Benzodiazepines are all designed as central nervous system depressants; however, they each may work slightly differently at targeting certain symptoms. For example, Restoril, Dalmane (flurazepam), and Halcion (triazolam) are considered primarily hypnotic benzodiazepines prescribed for insomnia, while Xanax, Ativan, Librium (chlordiazepoxide), and Valium are classified as anxiolytics used to treat anxiety symptoms. Klonopin is considered primarily an anticonvulsant. Different metabolites of these medications make them slightly different, which may also affect how quickly they leave the bloodstream. Withdrawal from different benzodiazepines is generally thought to bring the same general symptoms; however, it is possible that an individual withdrawing from a hypnotic may have more disrupted sleep patterns while withdrawal from an anxiolytic may include higher levels of anxiety.

    The method of ingestion is also related to the onset of withdrawal. For instance, snorting or injecting benzos sends the drugs straight into the bloodstream to take almost instant effect. Ingesting a pill requires that it be digested through the digestive tract, which can potentially extend the withdrawal period.

    Poly-Drug Abuse

    Benzodiazepines are also regularly abused in conjunction with other drugs and/or alcohol. This is called poly-drug abuse and can influence the withdrawal severity and timeline. The Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) report of 2011 published that 95 percent of those admitted to a drug treatment center for benzodiazepine abuse or dependency also abused another drug or alcohol simultaneously. Abuse of other illicit substances may also increase the type and number of withdrawal symptoms that occur.

    Stopping a benzo cold turkey without medical assistance is not recommended. Instead, medical detox is required for all benzodiazepine addictions. Medical detox generally involves tapering off the drugs with professional care and support. In addition to ensuring that patients remain safe throughout the detox process, medical personnel can also help to alleviate uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms. In some cases, medical detox will involve substitute a longer-acting benzodiazepine for a shorter-acting one during the tapering process, to make withdrawal smoother and reduce withdrawal symptoms. Other medications may be prescribed during medical detox to treat specific symptoms as well. The British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published that medications such as flumazenil may be effective during medical detox, for example. Research is ongoing to find new and improved treatment methods to ease benzodiazepine withdrawal.

    Withdrawal Phases

    Benzodiazepine withdrawal may occur in three main phases: early withdrawal, acute withdrawal, and protracted withdrawal.

    The early withdrawal phase usually starts within a few hours to a few days of stopping the medication and may last a few days. During early withdrawal, an individual may experience a return of anxiety and insomnia symptoms as the brain rebounds without the drugs. Symptoms the benzos worked to suppress may come flooding back. The tapering process frequently used in medical detox may help dampen this rebound effect.

    After a few days of stopping a benzodiazepine, acute withdrawal may begin. This phase constitutes the bulk of withdrawal. Symptoms may include anxiety, panic, insomnia, muscle spasms or tension, nausea and/or vomiting, diarrhea, blurred vision, seizures, hallucinations, short-term memory impairment, trouble concentrating, clouded thinking, mood swings, agitation, drug cravings, twitching and weight loss due to a decreased appetite. It is during this phase that specific medications may be most beneficial at targeting some of the certain symptoms. Suicidal thoughts and actions may occur during acute withdrawal from a benzodiazepine as well, and therapy and support groups may help diffuse these complicated emotions. Acute withdrawal may last between two weeks and several months.

    Some people, around 10 percent according to a study published by ABC News . may experience protracted withdrawal syndrome that can extend several months or even years after stopping use of a benzodiazepine.

    Individuals may experience tingling in their arms and legs, muscle twitches, prolonged anxiety and insomnia, and cognitive deficits as well as depression and mood swings that may be difficult to manage. These symptoms may appear randomly and without warning. Mental health services and support beyond medical detox include therapy and counseling to manage protracted withdrawal symptoms. When a mental health disorder is also present, called co-occurring disorders, specialized treatment that caters to dual diagnoses may be beneficial during recovery.

    While there is no hard and fast timeframe for the withdrawal period from a benzodiazepine, medical and mental health professionals can help to greatly reduce the intensity and duration of symptoms that occur during detox. Again, benzo withdrawal should not be attempted without medical supervision. Medical detox can aid in the safe removal of benzodiazepines from the body and brain, and following up with therapy and family support services promotes a smooth recovery.

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    Phoenix Alcohol Rehabilitation Centers, Phoenix Alcohol Rehab, Alcohol Treatment Phoenix – Rehab in Phoenix


    is rated 0 /5 based on reviews.

    Alcohol Rehab

    Research has found that alcohol rehab is a very efficient means of breaking away from alcohol addiction. These types of rehab are not just a temporary fix to a deadly situation but more of an influential opportunity for those who are trapped and giving up. Alcohol rehab is a safe option for an individual to work on the issues that caused them to choose alcohol as a means of remedy.

    In an alcohol rehab the client will be given a chance to begin the process of coming to terms with his/her condition, learning about the disease of alcoholism and the effects it has had on not only their lives but their family and friends as well. They will proceed through the stages of treatment beginning with the detox process, leading up to group sessions and private therapy, incorporating also physical exercise and inclusion into the 12 step community.

    Alcohol detox. the 1st stage of treatment is a careful monitoring of the individual, possibly in a medical setting to cleanse the body of the toxins caused by alcohol abuse. Some of the symptoms of withdrawal are: depression, mood swings, seizures, and what is commonly known as DT’s which can include hallucinations and heightened aggression (in extreme cases). The detox process can take anywhere between 3-5 days or even up to 2 weeks. The symptoms mentioned here usually subside within the first week to 10 days. Once the detox process is complete the individual can move on to the next phase of the treatment plan.

    Personal treatment plans are constructed by a clinical team and counseling and education can begin. These treatment plans include working on cause and effect, relapse prevention, daily living skills and accountability while developing relationships within peer groups. During this time the individual will be given the chance to examine his/her personal history and discover the root of their issues and move forward to the solutions. While working one on one in private sessions, the deeper things can be uncovered and the strength to face these issues in a group setting can be developed.

    After the rehab stay is complete there are options offered including aftercare, which is strongly recommended in most cases. This is all a process that requires the support of others in recovery as well. When faced with the stresses of returning to family, work and everyday life can at times be overwhelming. Sometimes the simple things such as the drive home from work past the local tavern can trigger an intense desire to return for just one drink. So, the continued care and accountability combined with the support of the aftercare team is a beneficial addition to the long term sobriety of the recovering alcoholic .

    The majority of alcohol rehabs have focused solely on the alcohol problem, paying little or no attention to any physiological factors under the surface. New studies have shown there is quite a high percentage (close to 50%) of alcoholics who suffer from one or more separate mental health problems. Such issues must be dealt with also. Psychiatric evaluations are often included and, if needed, further care in this area will be done.

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    Pumpkin Brownies #addiction #hot #line


    Pumpkin Brownies

    posted by Jamie on October 24, 2012

    Pumpkin and Chocolate. You either love it or hate it, right? Personally, I m kind of a fan; however, in my opinion nothing beats the combination of cream cheese and pumpkin. And in case you haven t noticed I m pretty much a self-proclaimed pumpkin addict if nothing else, this girl is self-aware.

    In order to satisfy my pumpkin addiction and Brian s incessant chocolate cravings, I decided to combine our favorite flavors into one decadent dessert Pumpkin Brownies.

    A sweet and spicy combination of pumpkin and cream cheese is layered between rich, fudgy brownies and topped with chocolate ganache to create an indulgent treat that s perfect for any Fall feast!

    I imagine presenting these Pumpkin Brownies to a Thanksgiving table would lead to plenty of oohs and ahs! Who could possibly resist the swirled center and glistening layer of chocolate?

    Let me know where you stand pumpkin and chocolate, pumpkin and cream cheese, or all of the above?

    Pumpkin Brownies

    Prep Time: 20 minutes

    Cook Time: 30-35 minutes


    4 ounces unsweetened chocolate; coarsely chopped
    3/4 cup unsalted butter, cut into cubes
    1 1/4 cups sugar
    3 large eggs
    1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
    1/4 teaspoon salt
    1 cup Gold Medal all-purpose flour

    For the Pumpkin Swirl

    4 ounces cream cheese, softened
    1/2 cup pumpkin puree
    1/4 cup granulated sugar
    1 1/2 teaspoons homemade pumpkin pie spice
    1/2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract

    For the Ganache

    4 ounces semisweet chocolate, chopped
    1/2 cup heavy cream


    1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Line an 8×8 inch baking pan with foil and spray with nonstick cooking spray.

    2. Microwave chocolate and butter in a large microwave-safe bowl at medium (50% power) for 3-4 minutes or until butter is melted. While the chocolate is melting, prepare the pumpkin layer. In a medium bowl, combine cream cheese, pumpkin puree, sugar, pumpkin pie spice and vanilla. Beat with an electric mixer well combined and smooth. Set aside.

    3. Once the butter is melted, remove the bowl from the microwave and stir until chocolate is melted. Whisk in sugar, eggs, vanilla and salt. Gradually add in flour; stir until just combined.

    4. Spread 3/4 the batter into prepared pan. Spoon pumpkin filling by tablespoonfuls evenly over batter. Spoon remaining brownie batter over filling. Use a knife or wooden skewer to cut through the batter several times in different directions to create a swirled pattern. Bake in preheated oven for 30-35 minutes – do not overbake

    5. Remove to cooling rack to cool completely. Before serving, prepare the ganache.

    6. To make the ganache, pour the chopped chocolate into a medium mixing bowl, set aside. Pour the heavy cream into a microwave safe measuring cup (Pyrex) and microwave on high for about 1 minute or until bubbles begin to form on the surface. Take care to not overheat because the cream will boil over. Pour the hot cream over the chocolate and allow it to sit for about 3 minutes. Use a small whisk to combine the mixture into a smooth chocolate glaze. Spoon the ganache over the brownies.

    Source: My Baking Addiction


    This post is part of an ongoing relationship between My Baking Addiction and Gold Medal Flour. In June of 2012, My Baking Addiction attended a Farm to Table event in Kansas City to learn why Gold Medal has been America’s flour of choice for 125 years. Although this is a sponsored post, the views and opinions expressed are our own and based upon our personal experiences with Gold Medal Flour.

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